The Portuguese Man of War is an extremely complex form of life, and despite its outward appearance, the Man of War is not a jellyfish, but a siphonophore. This makes it different from jellyfish as it is not actually a single creature. The Portuguese Man of wear is in fact a colonial organism made up of minute individuals called zooids, and these combine to create the four types of polyps that are characteristic of the Portuguese man of War.

One of the polyps, a gas-filled bladder, enables the organism to float. The other three polyp types are known as dactylozooid (defence), gonozooid (reproduction), and gastrozooid (feeding).

The dactylzooids make up the tentacles that are typically 30 ft in length, but they can be as long as 165 ft.

The long tentacles "fish" continuously through the water, and are armed with a large number of stinging cells called nematocysts. these stinging cells are tiny, but each one contains a coiled hollow tube, tipped with barbs.

Any pressure on these stinging cells - such as a fish brushing by as it swims past - causing the barbs to be released. They shoot into the prey - like miniature harpoons -  while remaining attached to the tentacles. the sting contains a powerful poison, similar to cobra venom.

Contractile cells in each tentacle drag the prey into range of the digestive polyps - the gastrozooids - which lie beneath the float. These then surround and digest the food by secreting enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

Have you been stung by a Portuguese man of war?

The indications that you have been stung by a Man O’ War are: Stinging, burning, redness, swelling of lymph nodes. You may see long welt lines. In some people sensitive to the Man O’ War venom, there may be severe reactions, including difficulty with breathing and cardiac arrest.

The sting toxin secreted from the tentacles is a neurotoxin about seventy-five percent as powerful as cobra venom. The welts can last for minutes to hours.

Studies on the effectiveness of meat tenderizer, baking soda, papain, or commercial sprays (containing aluminum sulfate and detergents) on nematocyst stings have been contradictory. It’s possible these substances cause further damage.


If you have been stung with what you think is a Man O’ War, try these steps to minimize the pain and damage.

1. Rinse the area with seawater or fresh water to remove any tentacles stuck to the skin. This can be from a spray bottle or in a beach shower.

2. For severe pain, try applying heat or cold, whichever feels better.

3. While most stings are NOT generally fatal, some people can have severe allergic reactions to the sting that can cause a health danger. Consider even the slightest breathing difficulty, or altered level of consciousness, a medical emergency. Call for help immediately and seek immediate professional medical advice.

4. Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature tap water for at least 15 minutes. If vision blurs, or the eyes continue to tear, hurt, swell, or are light sensitive after irrigating, seek professional medical advice.

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Step back in time to before the last ice age and you will find that the lion once roamed widely across the planet. In fact the lion enjoyed the widest distribution of any mammal except for humans. From the South American Pampas, to the frigid north of Siberia, lions stalked the vast herds of large herbivores, including the iconic woolly mammoth. Sadly today, this species has disappeared from most of its range, largely down to the rise of man. As predators ourselves, the lion became a natural competitor, and so as our populations increased, so the lions decreased.

Unfortunately, many of the large herbivores that the lions relied upon also vanished at the end of the last ice age, presumably down to climate change and human hunting.

The lion is a proud symbol of Africa,  but what many people don't realise is that there are still a few wild lions  living outside of Africa. These are the Asiatic or Indian lions, which just a century ago roamed across vast swathes of the Asian continent. Today they are restricted to a tiny enclave in India, known as the Gir National Park.

Two thousand years ago, the Asiatic lion range extended right across into Southern Europe, and as far west as Greece. They were also numerous right across the Arabian Peninsula, and of course ranged widely across the Indian sub-continent. Over the proceeding centuries, successive waves of human empires rose and fell across the region, and inevitably these lions population faded away.

By the turn of the 20th Century, the Asiatic subspecies of lion was balancing on a knife edge as just two dozen lived within the confines of an area of teak forest in Northern India known as Gir.

The local prince -  Nawab Rasulkhanji of Junagadh, possessed an insatiable passion for hunting and was considered to be an excellent marksman. He specialised in hunting leopards and perhaps out of reverence for the lion’s status in Indian culture and folklore placed strict restrictions on hunting them.

After India’s independence in 1947, the fledgling government formalised the Nawab’s restrictions by creating special lion reserves on the Southern tip of the Kathiawar Peninsula in Gujarat, with the most famous being the Gir Wildlife Sanctuary, officially created in 1965.

Over the years, the boundaries of the sanctuary have expanded by over 900 miles squared, incorporating vast tracts of dry, hilly forest; today it’s known as the Gir Conservation Area. The last census of Gir’s lions was conducted in 2010 and the good news was that there are currently 411 individuals roaming around Gir. The bad news is that, that number is deceptively high, as up to 150 lions are sub adults or cubs, and many of these will fail to make it to adulthood.

The Lions of Gir came very close to extinction. The evidence for this is a rather prominent ridge of loose skin along the bellies of mostly the male lions. This unusual trait only crops up occasionally in their African relatives, but is widespread in the Asiatic variety.

Scientists believe that it arose as a result of the lions experiencing a ‘population bottleneck’. This was brought about by the relentless hunting carried out by humans down the ages which reduced the lions to such low numbers that they were effectively forced to inbreed.

By the start of the 1970s, the Indian government, conscious of losing one of India’s most powerful symbolic animals, implemented a rather radical policy. At that time, more than 4500 people and 25,000 livestock lived and moved within Gir’s boundaries.

Over the next decade or so, two thirds of the local Maldhari were moved out of the area. The plan though was highly controversial and still sparks fury among the Maldhari today, but it was pivotal in saving the lions from almost certain extinction. The lions’ chief natural prey no longer faced competition from domestic livestock, and the land was now free of people cutting down trees for cattle fodder and firewood.

As an indication of just how much has changed, before the 1970s, Gir was home to just 6000 wild grazers, mostly chital, wild boar and a larger species of deer known as the sambar. In 2010, the number had grown to 65,000 ten times more than it had been just forty years previously. However, there are worrying signs that the human pressures that nearly condemned India’s last lions to extinction are returning. Today, 6000 people live within the National Park, exactly the same number that was present in 1970. The herders and their animals have access to virtually all of the area, apart from a core area where most of the lions live. An extra 100,000 people plus another 100,000 cattle and buffalo inhabit villages that dot the forests boundaries.

Astonishingly, despite these worrying changes, the lions have managed to expand outside of Gir and create small populations in small wooded areas, some of which are home to as many as one in four of the entire population. However, most areas of suitable habitat have now been occupied, which hinders further expansion and thus limits the lion’s chances of setting up prides in new areas.

In 1994 a delegation of experts and conservationists travelled from India to South Africa’s Phinda Private Game Reserve. The leader of the expedition was prominent Indian lion expert, Ravi Chellam. Chellam wished to observe how Phinda were successfully able to transport large and dangerous game animals. Phinda’s objective was simple, to recreate thriving populations by relocating lions under pressure from people into wilder, more desirable country. They aimed to re-establish lions in areas where they had disappeared decades before due to conflicts with humanity.

By the time of Chellam’s visit, the ingenious technique now dubbed ‘wild to wild translocation’ was so effective that lions now roamed once again over vast swathes of their former range. Ravi and his team left South Africa, inspired and with an abundance of insights into how exactly India’s lions could be saved. The task was to try and set up a new population of Asiatic lions outside of their current base at Gir.

In the 20 years or so that have passed since the expedition, various conservation initiatives have helped to increase the lions population, but only within Gir itself. But the lion's refuge is an island, and it’s an increasingly overcrowded island. Unfortunately, the strategies successfully employed in South Africa have yet to be replicated in India. The Asiatic lion’s future still hangs by the narrowest of narrow threads.

The lion’s best and probably last hope probably lies with Gujarat’s Eastern neighbour, the state of Madhya Pradesh, which have been frantically preparing the Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary to receive the lions that will save the species. The reserve lies around 500 miles away from Gir, and although it covers a smaller area, the surrounding landscape is dense forest, ten times bigger than anything at Gir.

The state government, along with its national partner have poured millions of pounds into Kuno-Palpur. Like Gir, they have taken the radical step of relocating a total of 24 villages, which in turn has led to widespread forest regeneration and a huge increase in the wild herbivore population; the only missing component is the lions themselves.

However, India’s last lions may never get a chance to roam Kuno-Palpur, there’s nothing biologically or socio-economically that’s stopping this miracle for happening. It’s all about politics; Gujarat is fiercely proud of its lions and refuses to be parted with its ultimate status symbol. After all, the lions are a huge tourism draw, and Gujarat would not want to lose such a valuable monopoly.

Today, all of the remaining 411 lions are closely related, their survival is by no means guaranteed, because the lack of genetic diversity leaves them vulnerable to disease and consequently threatens to undermine all of the hard work that has gone into bring the species back from the very brink of oblivion.

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The interpretation of Jesus Christ's ability to walk on water is generally left to biblical scholars, but modern day scientists have now been able to find out how the aptly named ‘Jesus lizard’ is able achieve a similar ‘miracle’ without falling in.

This incredible ability is common to a group of animals known as basilisk lizards. Typically, they inhabit the edge of rivers that run through rainforests, where they feed on small insects amongst the foliage.

However, being cold blooded creatures, they need to bask in the sun to warm up their bodies to an effective working temperature but this can leave them vulnerable to being caught by predators – in particular birds of prey and small jungle cats.

In order to evade such predators the lizards have evolved an extraordinary escape mechanism. When frightened, the lizard will drop into the water and run across the surface which is how they have earned themselves the common name of ‘Jesus’ or ‘Jesus Christ’ lizard.

Basilisk lizards range in size from a weight of less than 2 grams right up to 200 grams, yet throughout their size range they are able to run across water on their hind legs at about 5 feet per second for a distance of approximately 15 feet. However, after this point they tend to ‘run’ out of energy, sinking to all fours before having to swim.

The Jesus lizards are able to accomplish this seemingly miraculous act by generating forces with their feet that keep their bodies both above the surface and upright.
Exactly how they do this has been revealed by using specialist slow-motion footage taken at 2,000 frames per second. The resulting film has been used as part of the BBC Life series.

Most animals that attempt to walk or run across water immediately sink toward their supporting limb because water - unlike solid ground - offers little support or resistance. However, basilisk lizards produce massive sideways forces in their running stride, which also helps them to stay upright.

The stride is divided into three phases: the slap, the stroke, and the recovery. During the slap, the foot moves vertically downward. During the stroke it moves backward, and during the recovery the foot moves up and out of the water, returning to the start position of the next step.

The support force generated by the slap is sufficient to keep the lizards' bodies above the water's surface during the stroke phase in which they propel themselves forward by kicking their legs back through the water.

Simon Blakeney, a producer on the series who helped direct and film the footage of these basilisk lizards had this to say on the matter:

‘...because they run so fast they create a bubble as their feet hit the water and then they push off from this bubble before it bursts. They can only run at that speed. If they were going any slower, for example, they wouldn't stay upright; they would slip into the water and would have to swim...’

For more information click onto:
Are Jellyfish Fish?
Are Slug Pellets Poisoning Our Wildlife
British Birds of Paradise
British Government Creates Worlds Largest Marine Reserve Around Chagos Islands
Can Flying Fish really Fly?
Caring for Insect Eating Birds in Winter
How do High Nitrite Levels Affect Fish Health?
Discovered - Frog Unique to Science
Discovered - Giant Monitor Lizard
Discovered - the Language of Hyenas
Diamondback Rattlesnake
Easter Island - a Lesson in Environmental Exploitation
Edible Crop Pollination and the Decline of Bees
Elephants - Can they Run or do they just Walk Fast?
Fall in Bee Populations Linked to Decline in Plant Biodiversity
Feeding Wild Birds
Food Plants For Butterflies
Food Plants For Caterpillars
Gaboon viper - Bitis gabonica
Great White Shark Facts
How Big is the Blue Whale?
How do Elephants Communicate and Talk to Each Other?
How do Ostriches Run so Fast?
How Fast is a Snail?
How Long can a Flying Fish Fly for?
How to Attract Bumblebees to the Suburban Garden
How to Attract the Hummingbird Hawk Moth
How to Feed Birds?
How to Make a Butterfly Garden
How to Make a Wildlife Pond
Jellyfish Swarms - The Latest Man-Made disaster?
Light Pollution and the Decline in Bat Populations
Light Pollution and the Decline of Native Insects
Light Pollution - The Hidden Threat
Lost Frog Returned from Extinction
Native Pond Plants
Nectar Rich American Wildflowers for Attracting Native Bumble Bees
Nectar Rich Plants for Attracting Long-Tongued Bumble Bees
Non-Native Invasive Species - The Japanese Knotweed
Non-Native Invasive Species - The Harlequin Ladybird
Non-Native Invasive Species - The American Signal Crayfish
Non-Native Invasive Species - The Ring-Necked Parakeet
Pesticides Toxic to Honey Bees
Plants that Attract the Hummingbird Hawk Moth
Rattlesnake Facts
Sacrificial Planting
Seed Bearing Plants for Attracting Wild Finches
Snow Leopard
Native Plants - The Snake's Head Fritillary
The Decline of Butterfly and Caterpillar Habitat
The Decline of Insect Eating Birds
The Dragons Skull Seed Pod
The Eagle Owl - Friend or Foe?
The Importance of Log Piles to Native Wildlife
The Jesus Christ Lizard
The Layers of the Rainforest
The Leaf-Tailed Gecko
The 'Native Trees' of England
The Plight of English Woodlands
The Wolverine Frog
The World's Most Poisonous Snake
The Saltwater Crocodile
What Animal is Sid from the Film 'Ice Age'?
What are the Natural, Native Predators of Vine Weevils
What are the Safe Organic Alternative to Slug Pellets
What are Sharks?
What can we do to Help Save the Rainforests
What Causes Pond Water to go Frothy?
What is the Difference Between Alligators and Crocodiles?
What is 'Slash and Burn' Farming and How does it Affect the Rainforests?
What is the World's most Poisonous Snake?
What is the Most Poisonous Spider?
Which Native Animals Eat Slugs and Snails
Which Plants can Attract Bats into the Garden?
Why are Tropical Rainforests so Important?
Why Shark Fin Soup is Devastating World Shark Populations
Why Should we Protect the Rainforest?
Image care of http://www.strangeanimals.info/2010/12/jesus-christ-lizard.html and http://www.posterpal.com/religion/christian/jesus_670408.html


In the weeks up to Christmas you will start to see a rather strange looking fruit appearing on the soft fruit displays in your local supermarket. Looking like a cross between a tomato and a dwarf mango, persimmons are the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus Diospyros.

Yes it looks like a Sharon fruit, but that is because Sharon fruit is a form of persimmon which received its pseudonym from the Sharon plain in Israel where it was extensively grown.

Of course, confusion surrounding the persimmon doesn't stop there as there are two varieties commonly available and you need to know which one is which in order to avoid making a rather unsavoury mistake!

The two varieties of persimmon commonly available are the round 'Fuyu' and the heart-shaped Hachiya.

How to eat persimmons

Persimmons are eaten fresh, dried, raw, or cooked. When eaten fresh they are usually eaten whole like an apple or cut into quarters, though with some varieties it is best to peel the skin first.

One way to consume very ripe persimmons, which can have the texture of pudding, is to remove the top leaf with a paring knife and scoop out the flesh with a spoon. Riper persimmons can also be eaten by removing the top leaf, breaking the fruit in half and eating from the inside out.

The Hachiya persimmon

The Hachiya persimmon
Hachiya persimmons are heart-shaped and have a shiny deep orange skin that may be streaked with black.

Hachiyas can be eaten only when fully ripe. How can you tell when a Hachiya persimmon is ripe? Hold it in your hand. It should feel like it's filled with water and will be extremely soft and squishy.

Removing the thin skin reveals coral coloured flesh so thick and glossy it looks like jelly and will taste a bit like it too. It will taste like a very sweet blend of mango and apricot. Eat them plain or use them in baked goods, sauces, and smoothies.

Just remember this: DO NOT eat an unripe Hachiya as the flesh will be full of bitter tasting tannins. It can take up to a week to ripen, but you can speed things up but placing the fruit with a banana inside of a paper bag. The banana releases ethylene - a natural plant growth regulator, which speeds up the ripening process.

You can tell when Hachiya persimmons are ripe as they will turn red and display long cracks in their skin.

The Fuyu persimmon

The Fuyu persimmon
In contrast, Fuyu persimmons are squat and rather heavy for their size. Their skin ranges from pale yellow-orange to brilliant reddish-orange. Generally, the darker the colour  the sweeter the taste.

Unlike the Hachiya persimmon, Fuyu persimmons can be eaten firm or soft. Firm Fuyus can be eaten like an apple, skin and all. And when you slice off the top, a beautiful star will appear in the flesh.

Crunchy cinnamon flavoured Fuyus are also great in salads and salsas.

For more information click onto:
All about Blueberries
Buy Kiwi Fruit Seed
Growing Kiwi Fruit from Seed
Growing Strawberries from Seed
Growing Strawberries from Seed
How to Grow an Apple Tree from Seed
How to Grow Blackberries
How to Grow Blueberries
How to grow Blueberries in Pots and Containers
How to Grow Melons
How to Germinate and Grow Watermelon Seed Indoors
How to Grow Melon Plants from Seed Outdoors
How to Grow Melons in a Greenhouse
How to grow Pineapple
How to Grow Raspberries
How to Grow Rhubarb?
How to Grow the Sago Palm from Seed
How to Grow Strawberries
How to Grow Strawberries from Seed
How to Grow Watermelon Plants from Seed Outdoors
How to Overwinter Strawberries
How to Plant and Grow Strawberries
How to Propagate Strawberries
How to Protect Fruit from Birds
How to Collect and Prepare Strawberry Seed for Propagation
How to Plant and Grow Blackcurrants
Strawberry Jams
Tetrapanax papyrifera 'Rex'
The Blueberry
The Dragon Blood Tree 
The Pineapple
Vitamin A Food
What is a Banana?
What is a Blueberry?
What is Gluten?
What is a Kiwi fruit?
What is a Papple?
What is Persimmon?
What is Quinoa?
What is Tomacco?
What is True Love?
When to Prune Apple Trees
Based on an article from http://foodblogga.blogspot.co.uk/2008/11/what-is-persimmon.html
Images care of http://gardentowok.wordpress.com/2011/12/10/oriental-persimmons-diospyros-kaki-continued/ and http://www.cookingwithcorey.info/2010/12/recipe-211-poached-persimmons.html


Tree ferns are amongst the most magnificent and resilient of all plant species and posses an architectural quality almost unique in nature. Unfortunately, it is the very fact of its uniqueness that causes concern when it comes to looking after them. Why, well it’s because when purchased tree ferns generally come without a root system, and look more like a detached elephant leg than anything else. However, get the cultivation right and you will end up with an impressive and vigorous specimen plant - I guarantee it.

Growing tree ferns

Native tree fern woodland 
Tree ferns originate from the acid woodlands of south-east Australia, so when it comes to growing them in your back garden the closer you can mimic their natural habitat the better your specimen will be.

Tree ferns thrive in a sheltered, humid and shaded position., so for the best start they should be planted in humus-rich, neutral to slightly acid soil. Extremely slow growing, these desirable plants only increase their trunk height by about 2.5cm (1in) a year. Therefore, if you want a plant for immediate effect, you should choose a fern with a length of trunk that suits your planting scheme. If you buy containerised ferns in leaf, plant at the same level as they were in the container. Frondless lengths of trunk are also available. Plant just enough of the trunk to ensure the plant remains stable. After planting frondless tree ferns water every day until the foliage starts to emerge.

How to water tree ferns

Sawn tree fern trunks
Luckily, watering tree ferns is very simple; it is just a case of mimicking how they would receive water in their native habitat.

Tree ferns live below the tree canopy along the floor of temperate rain forests but as well as absorbing ground water through their roots they can also collect water from their leaves which drains into the crown and further down into the trunk.

Their specialised fibrous trunks can also collect water either as rain falling onto it or from water droplets from mist and fog.

In the garden situation you would use either a hose or watering can fitted with a rose, watering the entire plant from top to bottom. While your tree fern may be bought without roots, once potted on these will be produced during the growing season.

If your tree fern is positioned in full sun it is likely to need watering most days, especially during the summer. If it is growing in the shade or semi-shade then you should be able to get away with watering every two to three days.

Once the cooler temperatures of autumn arrive watering can be dropped off to perhaps once a week but you still do not want the truck or the crown to dry out. It is only over the winter period that the crown should just be kept on the damp side, but it may also require protection to stop the crown from fully freezing and damaging next seasons new growth.

If you have purchased your tree fern as just a cut trunk it is worth letting it soak in a bath of water for an hour or so before planting.


Tree fern crown
Feeding a tree fern is relatively easily because - like most other plants - they are able to retrieve nutrients from the soil using its root system. However, they also have a secondary formation of roots within the trunk which reaches close to the top of the crown. This enables tree ferns to also feed on accumulated debris, bird and animal droppings that are washed into the crown by way of their specialist fronds during rainfall.

Feeding from the crown will be important when you first purchase a tree fern as they will generally come cut at the base and therefore without a root system. At this time feeding is important as the tree fern will be stressed and will have little energy reserves with which to produce new leaves and an essential, replacement root system.

It is good practice to soak a new, cut tree fern in a bath of water for an hour or so before planting, but is also well worth adding a half to quarter dose of soluble plant feed in with the water – especially if bought during the spring and summer months. To prevent fertilizer wastage only apply soluble fertilizers via the crown but as the plant becomes established it will do well with a regular mulch at the base.

Continue to regularly water the trunk and crown until the first frond unfurls, at which point a half dose of soluble plant fertilizer can be applied once a week. As soon as the tree fern starts producing new fronds on a regular basis it can then be fed the recommended dose of plant fertiliser once or twice a week.

When trees ferns are established they can utilise a surprisingly large amount of nutrition, and in a good year are able to produce a second ring of fronds on top of the first. If you intend heavily feeding your tree ferns then it will be important to also water them regularly – at least twice a day morning and evening – so that they do not suffer with root burn.

Once the growing season moves into the autumn period it’s best to end feeding to allow the existing fronds to harden up for the winter. As soon as the first frond opens in the spring feeding can once again commence at the half dose concentration.


When it comes to tree ferns you should always lean to the safe side.

Consider the worse weather that the winter climate is likely to throw at you, and protect your plant against that. You can do this in one of two ways.

1. Protect you fern for the entire winter period or

2. Only protect your fern when temperatures get close to the limits that it can survive at.
Which parts of the tree fern will need protecting?

Tender new tree fern fronds
Although it’s the fronds that are most susceptible to the cold, they are also in fact the most expendable. It is the crown of the trunk that is the most important part as this is where the meristems exist which will produce the following years growth. Next in line is the trunk because this protects the thick, boot-strap like roots which – if the crown dies – may be able to produce new meristematic tissue from dormant buds which will in turn produce new fronds – but don’t hold your breath.

Coming in third in the hierarchy of importance is the thick, fibrous root system at the base of the plants. If the root system dies - but the crown and the thick roots within the truck survive - there is nothing to worry about as these will re-grow over the following season. I would still protect them just to be on the safe side as less hardy species - such as Dicksonia squarrosa - can form multiple crowns and will grow back from the base if the crown is cold damaged – but only if it is mature enough.

Methods of protection

In their native habitat the crowns of tree ferns will normally be protected by leaf litter that has fallen down from the tree canopy above.

You can easily mimic this with leaves collected from around the garden, and this will work quite effectively down to temperatures of between 1 or 2 degrees below freezing.

However the best method is to plant the tree fern in the ground but with the root-ball still contained in some type of pot.

That way it can be lifted before the cold depths of winter arrive without disturbing the root-ball. Remember that - come the spring - the tree fern will need to be hardened off again. Unfortunately this will be dependent on the size and weight of the tree fern, and whether suitable over-wintering space is available, otherwise the yearly lifting of your tree fern may not be a viable option.

The most popular method used for protecting tree ferns is to surround the entire plant – excluding the fronds as these will grow back – with a simple structure filled with a natural insulation. The structure can be made of anything that is sturdy enough such as wood, plastic tubing or a firm wire mesh. This can be covered with clear polyethylene sheeting, bubble wrap, loft insulation – again, use whatever is suitably appropriate and close to hand.

This in itself may be perfectly adequate, but for extra protection you can back fill the structure with a good layer of straw or woollen fleece. I would recommend putting on some kind of a water-proof lid above the structure but make sure there is a good air gap between the top and the sides to prevent the build up of condensation on sunny days. At all times the crown must be kept moist especially if the weather picks up, but try not to have it wet during the cold spells as freezing will damage the crown.

As an additional precaution for the cautious, you can build up a mound of soil around the base of the trunk to help protect the root system and the lower body of the trunk from the cold.
For more information click onto:
How to Feed Tree Ferns
How to Grow Agapanthus
How to Grow Agapanthus from Seed
How to Grow the Baobab from Seed
How to Grow Bougainvillea?
How to Grow the Bearded Iris
How to Grow the Californian Lilac - Ceanothus species
How to Grow Camellias
How to Grow Campsis radicans
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How to grow Cyclamen from Seed
How to Grow Echium Wildpretii
How to Grow the Foxtail Lily
How to grow Heliconia rostrata
How to Grow Iris reticulata
How to Grow Lavender
How to Grow Lychnis Coronaria from Seed
How to Grow Old English Lavender
How to Grow Protea
How to Prune Roses
How to Grow Rosemary
How to Grow Rudbekia
How to Grow the Sago Palm from Seed
How to Grow Salvia discolor
How to Grow Schitzostylis
How to Grow Sweet Peas from Seed
How to Grow tree Ferns
How to Grow Water lilies
How to Grow Wisteria
How to Grow Witch-hazel - Hamamelis
How to Over-Winter Tree Peonies
How to propagate the Foxtail Lily
How to Water Tree Ferns
JAPANESE PAINTED FERNS - Athyrium niponicum cultivars
MADONNA LILY - Lilium candidum
Magnolia x soulangeana
Mexican Orange Blossom  - Choisya ternata
Ozothamnus rosemarinifolius 'Sliver Jubilee'
Rafflesia arnoldii
Salvia discolor
Salvia patens
Sophora microphylla 'Sun King'
Symplocarpus renifolius
THE AFRICAN TULIP TREE - Spathodea campanulata
THE CANNONBALL TREE -  Couroupita guianensis
THE DOG TOOTHED VIOLET - Erythronium 'pagoda'
The Japanese Anemone
THE MIMOSA TREE - Acacia dealbata
The Plant Hunters
Tetrapanax papyrifera 'Rex'
The Chilean bellflower - lapageria rosea
The Devil's Hand Tree -  Chiranthodendron pentadactylon
The Dragon Blood Tree 
The Eyeball Plant
The Gentian Sage - Salvia Patens
THE PIG FACE FRUIT - Solanum mammosum
The Tree Fern
The Tree peony -Paeony suffruticosa
The Windflower - Anemone blanda
The Witch-Hazel - Hamamelis species
TURK'S CAP LILY - Lilium martagon
Verbena bonariensis
What is a Rainbow Rose?
When do Tree Ferns put out New Fronds
Why are my Camellia Leaves Turning Yellow?
Why is my Tree Fern Dead?
WINTER ACONITE - Eranthus hyemalis
Why are my Camellia Flowers going Brown?
Why has my Lavender turned Woody?



If you are looking to buy Venus Fly Trap seed, you are in luck. The 'Seeds of Eaden' seed shop now have Venus Fly Trap in stock as part of its standard range. Just click on the links to be directed to the new and improved seed shop.

The Venus Fly Trap

There can be no question as to which is the most spectacular of all the carnivorous plants - the Venus flytrap. Related to the ‘Sundews’, it is the only species within this family that has evolved such an elaborate trapping mechanism.

It has narrow, green leaves that are formed into the shape of a rosette that extend from the base of the plant. Each leaf is prolonged into two reddish, kidney shaped lobes that are hinged on either side of a mid-rib.

The outer margin of each lobe is fringed by a line of spikes and just beneath them is a band of nectar glands. If you look closely you can also see a few isolated hairs on each lobe – these are the triggers that are waiting to set the trap!

An insect that is attracted to the nectar can move around the upper surface of the lobe with absolute impunity – in fact ‘knocking' into one of these trigger hairs will cause the plant to do precisely nothing! However, if the creature touches the same or another hair in the lobe within a 20 second timescale, the trap will shut with such a speed that few - if any - insects will have a chance of escape.

It takes no more than a third of a second for the trap to close on its prey.

Exactly what produces this speed of movement is unknown, but it is though to be instigated by some rudimentary electric impulse.

.Although the line of spikes found on each lobe interlocks neatly, they do not close tightly on the initial movement, it is only when the trapped insect thrashes around inside its makeshift prison that more trigger hairs are activated - stimulating the lobes to close so tightly that the bulge of the insects body can often be seen on the outer surfaces of the closed lobes.

Once the prey is secured, the edges of the lobes will begin to form a hermetic seal and inside the trap digestive juices rich in hydrochloric acid seep from glands on the face of the lobes – dissolving the body of its captive and releasing its valuable nutrients.

It takes about ten days for the trap to fully digest the vital nutrients from its captives body, after which it is reduced to little more than a dry husk.

The trap then reopens, ready for its next victim.

Growing the Venus Fly Trap from Seed

In their native habitat Venus fly traps grow in a nutrient poor, acidic soil, so you will need to sow Venus fly trap seeds in an Ericaceous seed compost.

Using 4 inch pots, sow the Venus Fly trap seeds so that they are resting on the surface of the compost, but do not cover - this can be done at any time of year.

  Lightly press seeds onto the compost, spacing well apart to ensure a good contact.  and do not exclude light.

The compost should be damp but not soggy. Seal the pots inside a polythene bag or cover with glass and place out of direct sun, but in good light.

If you have a  propagator, maintain an optimum temperature of 75-80F (25-27C).

If you can, try to provide a humidity of 90% until most have germinated which takes 20-40 days then reduce to 70-80% - otherwise just do your best with a house-plant mister.

Transplant the seedlings after 3-4 true leaves develop.

Be aware that Venus fly trap seedlings are slow growing. Once the first set of true leaves has developed, give a VERY WEAK solution of liquid fertiliser once a month.

Never over fertilise as this can easily kill them!

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Image care of http://pitcher-plant-guidesntips.blogspot.co.uk/2011/08/plant-venus-fly-trap.html and http://www.30bananasaday.com/forum/topics/fruit-flies-help and http://www.honda-e.com/IPW_6_PhotoGallery/04_Dionaea/Ph4_1010.htm and http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2007/knoblauc_kris/this_is_the_life.htm


Alliums are a genus of bulbous plants containing over 280 species, many of which are found wild all over the Northern Hemisphere. Allium giganteum is native to the Himalayas and given the right conditions can grow to a height of over 4 ft! The leaves are glaucous and broadly strapped shaped, and they produce these beautiful, deep lilac, star-shaped flowers on impressive 4-5 inch umbels in June.

Allium cultivation

The giant allium will do best in well drained soil, and prefers a site blessed with full sun. If you are purchasing Allium giganteum as bulbs in the autumn then these can be planted September to October. Just make sure that they are planted a good 3-4 times the depth of the bulb - otherwise the plant may not be able to support the height of the stem and will fall over in strong winds. In exposed sites you may need to consider staking!

Deadhead after flowering, leaving the stem to die back naturally so that the nutrients and carbohydrates within can bulk-up and strengthen the bulb for the following year. Allowing the seeds to ripen will use precious energy, unless you are collecting the seed for propagation.


The flowers of the Allium giganteum are impressive by anyone's standards, and a personal favourite of my own. You can readily purchase them in the spring as bulbs - huge bulbs obviously - but as you can imagine, just one bulb can be pricey. However, growing Allium giganteum from seeds is surprisingly easy and as a hardy plant you can choose to grow them inside under protection or outside in a prepared seed bed.

TIP. Your giant alliums should germinate straight out of the pack, but if you purchased them early and are not ready to sow them yet then I would keep them in the bottom of the fridge to help break any dormancy issues and improve germination rates.

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