A very good question and one which has two answers. Unfortunately, both answers are no.
First answer: (ie. short answer) No.
Second answer: (ie. long answer) Nooooooooooooooooooo!
These are the facts. Once your cut Christmas tree has spent the past few weeks drying out inside a warm house it is difficult enough for it to re-root, even if it was a bought with a rudimentary root system still intact.
The problem with conifers (yes, your Christmas tree is just a large conifer) is that they are hard enough to root as cuttings - and that would be with basal heat, root hormone powder, mist irrigation and juvenile propagation material!
With a 'mature' tree you are going to come unstuck as there are no dormant root nodules at the base of the trunk with which to grow new roots from.
So sorry, but the answer is still no.
For related article click onto the following links:
CAN YOU REPLANT A CHRISTMAS TREE?
HOW DO YOU STOP A CHRISTMAS TREE FROM GROWING?
HOW TO STOP CHRISTMAS TREES FROM DROPPING THEIR NEEDLES