HOW TO GROW FROM SEED
Inside every seed is a miracle of biological engineering. Weighing anywhere from 1/35000000 (one 35 millionth) of an ounce for an orchid seed, and up to as much as 18 kg for the enormous Coco de Mer seed, all living seeds contain the complete genetic blueprint of its parents which they can use to replicate themselves to a similar design.
They are protected by a specialised seed coat – or testa - which allows the seed to germinate at the most optimum time of the year – it can also help to keep the seed viable for hundreds, and in rare cases, thousands of years! Furthermore, they contain enough energy to allow the seed to anchor itself into the ground using a juvenile root system as well as to produce its first true leaves. This will then set the seedling on the road to photosynthesis and a life of taking full advantage of free energy from the sun. This in turn will allow it to continue growing, and mature to a point where it will produce seed of its own.
Without seeds the vast majority of the world’s plant species would simply die out. Shortly after, life on earth will begin to follow. Without plants there would be no food to eat or timber for use as tools and shelter, so understanding how to grow plants from seeds is paramount to human existence.
Whenever you are trying to grow plants from seed there is always a delay from sowing the seed until the time it germinates. This is because certain environmental factors are required to trigger the germination process - usually, a combination of light, warmth and moisture. Depending on the seed, this can range from a few days right up until a few years. The reason behind this delay is something called seed dormancy and is all to do with the complex design of seed coats.
So, just what is seed dormancy?
While all seeds have been created with the double purpose of first protecting the embryo within, and then enabling the juvenile seedling to emerge at the most opportune time for optimum growth, the way that some plant species achieve this is akin to a Chinese puzzle box.
Without the required periods of dry, cold, wet or heat the protective seed coat will not allow the embryonic seed within to break out into life. However, some seeds will still refuse to germinate! This is what is known as seed dormancy and - simply put - seed dormancy can be defined as the failure of mature, intact seeds to germinate under favourable conditions.
So secure is this method of protection offered by some seeds that without the correct environmental responses they can remain dormant for hundreds of years. In fact, ancient magnolia seed retrieved from a Japanese tomb have been germinated after a period of some 2000 years!
While some seeds are extremely easy to germinate, others are clearly not and if somebody wished to bypass the enforced dormancy that many seed coats offer a certain amount of work is needed. Below is a list of common techniques used in bypassing the dormancy process.
Some seeds, e.g. Sweet peas, Ipomoea etc. have hard seed coats which prevent moisture being absorbed by the seed. All that is needed is for the outer surface to be scratched or abraded to allow water to pass through.
This can be achieved by chipping the seed with a sharp knife at a part furthest away from the 'eye', by rubbing lightly with emery paper or, with very small seed, pricking carefully once with a needle etc.
In some packet seed instructions you will find a reference to 'pre-chilling'. This is a pre-treatment of the seed which often helps to speed up the germination of otherwise slow to germinate seeds. However, even after pre-chilling some seeds can stubbornly refuse to germinate until a year or more has passed, so never be too hasty in discarding a seed container.
Pre-chilling was traditionally done by standing the pots outside in a cold frame during the winter. It is often quicker to adopt the following technique using a domestic refrigerator and this is of particular value if you obtain your seed outside the winter months.
To pre-chill seeds, first sow the seed on moistened seed compost, seal the seed container inside a polythene bag and leave at 60-65F (15-18C) for 3 days then place in a refrigerator for the recommended period. For convenience large seeds can be mixed with 2-3 times their volume of damp seed compost, placed direct into a polythene bag which is sealed and placed in the refrigerator. However, there must always be sufficient air inside the bag and the compost should NEVER become either too dry or over wet. After pre-chilling these seeds can then be spread with the compost on top of a seed container and firmed down.
The seeds must be moist whilst being pre-chilled, but it will harm them if they are actually in water. During the period in the refrigerator, examine the seeds once a week and remove all the seeds into the specified warm conditions if any of them start to germinate.
Light also seems to be beneficial after pre-chilling, so pre-chilled seeds should have only the lightest covering of compost, if any is required, and the seed trays or pots, should be in the light and not covered in paper.
Soaking is beneficial in two ways; it can soften a hard seed coat and also leach out any chemical inhibitors in the seed which may prevent germination. Anything from 1-3 hours in water which starts off hand hot is usually sufficient.
If soaking for longer the water should be changed daily. Seeds of some species swell up when they are soaked.
If some seeds of a batch do swell within 24 hours they should be planted immediately and the remainder pricked gently with a pin and returned to soak. As each seed swells it should be removed and sown before it has time to dry out.
Some seeds have a combination of dormancies and each one has to be broken in turn and in the right sequence before germination can take place.
For example some Lilies, Tree paeonies, Daphne etc. need a warm period during which the root develops followed by a cold period to break dormancy of the shoots, before the seedling actually emerges.
Some seeds need a cold period followed by a warm period and then another cold period before they will germinate.
For more specific information on growing plants from seed, click on the links below:
Growing Artichokes from Seed
Growing Butternut Squash from Seed
Growing Cabbage from Seed
Growing Carrots from Seed
Growing Celery from Seed
Growing Cucumbers form Seed
Growing Giant Onions from Seed
Growing Lettuce from Seed
Growing Onions from Seed
Growing Onions from Sets
Growing Oregano from Seed
Growing Strawberries from Seed
How to Break Dormancy in Seeds
How to Collect and Prepare Butternut Squash Seeds for propagation
How to Collect and Prepare French and Runner Beans for Propagation
How to Collect and Prepare Lettuce seeds for Propagation
How to Collect and Prepare Melon and Cucumber Seeds for Propagation
How to Collect and Prepare Hardy Passion Flower Seed for Sowing
How to Collect and Prepare Pea Seeds for Propagation
How to Collect and Prepare Pumpkin Seeds for Germination
How to Collect and Prepare Strawberry Seed for Propagation
How to Collect and Prepare Sweet and Chilli Pepper Seeds for Propagation
How to Collect and Prepare Tomato Seeds for Propagation
How to Collect, Prepare, and Save Okra Seed for Germination
How to Compost
How to Grow Amaryllis from Seed
How to Germinate and Grow Cucumbers from Seed
How to Germinate and Grow Melon Plants from Seed
How to Germinate and Grow Okra from Seed Indoors
How to Germinate and Grow Watermelon Seed Indoors
How to Grow Agave from Seed
How to grow Allium Giganteum from Seed
How to Grow Aloe vera from Seed
How to Grow Amaranth from Seed
How to Grow the Angel's Trumpet from Seed
How to Grow Artichokes from Seed
How to Grow Asparagus from Seed
How to Grow Asparagus from Seed Outside
How to Grow Aubergines From Seed
How to Grow Auriculas from Seed
How to Grow Autumn Sowings of Sweet Peas
How to Grow Avocado from Seed
How to Grow Bamboo
How to Grow Banana Trees from Seed
How to Grow Basil from Seed
How to Grow Basil from Seed Indoors
How to Grow the Bat Plant from Seed - Tacca chantieri
How to Grow Beetroot from Seed
How to Grow Bird of Paradise Plants from Seed
How to Grow Brussels Sprouts from Seed
How to Grow Broad Beans from Seed
How to Grow Butternut Squash from Seed
How to Grow Cabbage from Seed
How to Grow Carrots from Seed
How to Grow Celery from Seed
How to Grow Chinese Spinach from Seed
How to Grow Citrus from Seed
How to Grow Cucumbers from Seed
How to Grow Echium from Seed
How to Grow Eggplants from Seed
How to Grow Eucomis Plants from Seed
How to Grow Foxgloves from Seed - By Terence Baker
How to Grow From Seed
How to Grow Garlic
How to Grow Geraniums from Seeds
How to Grow Giant Celery from Seed
How to Grow the Glory Lily (Gloriosa superba) from Seed
How to Grow Grass from Seed
How to Grow Greenhouse Tomato Plants from Seed
How to Grow Jalapeno Peppers from Seed
How to Grow Hardy Passion Flowers from Seed
How to Grow Himalayan Blue Poppy - Meconopsis betonicifolia from Seed
How to Grow a Lemon Tree from Seed
How to Grow Lettuce From Seed
How to Grow Monkey face Orchids from Seed - A Warning!
How to Grow Crocus from Seed
How to Grow Melons in a Greenhouse
How to Grow Melon Plants from Seed Outdoors
How to Grow Mistletoe from Seed
How to Grow Native Wild Primroses and Polyanthus from Seed
How to Grow Okra from Seed Outdoors
How to Grow an Orange Tree from Seed
How to Grow Oregano from Seed
How to Grow Outdoor Tomato Plants from Seed
How to Grow Parsley from Seed Indoors
How to Grow Parsley from Seed in Outdoor Beds
How to Grow Peppadew Peppers from Seed
How to Grow Pumpkins from Seed
How to Grow the Pyrethrum Daisy from Seed
How to Grow Radish from Seed
How to Grow Red Kidney Beans from Dried Seed
How to Grow Rocket from Seed
How to Grow Roses from Cuttings
How to Grow Roses from Seed
How to Grow Species Tulips from Seed
How to Grow Spinach from Seed
How to Grow Strawberries from Seed
How to Grow Sunflowers from Seed
How to Grow Sweet Corn from Seed
How to Grow Sweet Potatoes in Pots or Containers
How to Grow Tomatoes?
How to Grow Tomatoes from Seed
How to Grow Tomato Seed
How to Grow Vegetables?
How to Grow Watercress from Seed
How to Grow Watermelon Plants from Seed Outdoors
How to Grow Winter Lettuce from Seed
How to Propagate and Grow Chili Peppers from Seed
How to Propagate and Grow Sweet Peppers from Seed
How to Propagate and Grow the Bell Pepper from Seed
How to Sow and Grow Courgettes from Seed Indoors
How to Sow and Grow Courgettes from Seed Outdoors
How to Sow and Grow Spring Onions from Seed
How to Sow and Grow Zucchini from Seed Indoors
Planting Lettuce Seed
Planting Radishes from Seed
Starting Tomato Plants From Seed
The Blue Poppy
Tomato Plants from Seed
What is Agave?
What is Composting?
What is an F1 Hybrid?
What is Seed Dormancy?
Why haven't my Seeds Germinated?
How to Germinate Sweetcorn Seed Indoors
Photo care of http://psycholad-scribbles.blogspot.com/2010_07_01_archive.html and http://www.tutorvista.com/biology/factors-affecting-germination-of-seeds