HOW TO GROW TULIPS




When it come to tulips most people will naturally think of the famous tulip fields of Holland. But you may be surprised to find out that Tulips are not a native plant to the Netherlands, in fact, they are not even close!

The story of the tulip began over a thousand years ago, when Turkish entrepreneurs had begun cultivating the wild tulips that grew in the Persian region, and traded them throughout the Ottoman Empire.

So how is it then, that although originating from a hot, dry mountainous environment, tulips manage to thrive in Holland.

At a first glance the Dutch landscape seems at odds with such an environmentally specific crop - especially with its almost uniquely characteristic landscape.

The Dutch terrain is at and - in many areas - below sea level, it’s extremely flat and the winters are particularly wet. But the reason why tulips do so well in Holland is because of their land reclamation policy. By introducing an effective drainage system based on the Archimedes screw and powered by windmills, they inadvertently created a soil that kept the bulbs in an almost perfect and constant environment.

Tulip cultivation

So we know that Tulips are native to mountainous areas with temperate climates, however what is often overlooked is their need for a period of cool dormancy -  known as vernalization. Therefore while tulips will happily thrive in climates with long, cool springs, and dry summers.

Tulip bulbs are often imported to warm-winter areas of the world from cold-winter areas, but they are planted in the autumn to be treated as annuals. You can get round this by lifting the bulbs once the leaves begin to die back so that they can be dried out over the winter period.

Tulip bulbs are typically planted around November - but this can be as late as January - into well-drained soils. The depth is normally 4 to 8 inches deep depending on the type planted. Do not plant tulips deeper than 6 inches deep in heavy soil.

In those parts of the world that do not have long cool springs and dry summers, the tulip bulb can be planted up to 12 inches deep. This extra depth will provides some insulation from the heat of summer, and tends to encourage the plants to regenerate one large, floriferous bulb each year, instead of many smaller, non-blooming ones. This can also extend the life of a tulip plant in warmer-winter areas by a few years, but it does not stave off both the degradation in bulb size and the eventual death of the plant due to the lack of vernalization.

Tulips thrive on alkaline soil so you have acidic soil apply 3-4 oz of of ground limestone per square yard before planting.

Dead-head your tulips once the first petals begin to fall., leaving the stems and leaves to feed the bulbs as they die back. Remember to remove fallen petals as these can harbour disease.

Ideally, lift the bulbs once the leaves begin to turn yellow but if the beds are required for summer bedding displays then the tulips can be lifted earlier and replanted in rows elsewhere and lifted again after the leaves have died down.

Once lifted, plant the bulbs in shallow boxes and store in a dry shed or greenhouse. The leaves can be removes once the they and the stems become dry and brittle, together with the roots, old scales and any remaining soil.

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Based on an article from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tulip and the Readers Digest Encylopaedia of Garden Plants and Flowers
Images care of http://www.hellomagazine.com/travel/201103255154/tulip/fields/holland/ and http://hoosiergardener.com/?p=4218 and http://craftandconsumption.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/fall-gardening-planting-tulip-bulbs.html andhttp://callyrhoe.hautetfort.com/archive/2010/05/24/semper-augustus.html

THE EIFFEL TOWER



The Eiffel Tower is one of the most - if not 'the' most iconic symbol in Paris, and probably the whole of France. However, it attracted an enormous amount of criticism when it first broke the skyline in 1889 as part of the Universal Exhibition in Paris, but fortunately its graceful symmetry soon made it a star attraction.

During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to assume the title of the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years, until the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930. Furthermore, it is still the tallest structure in Paris as well as the most-visited paid monument in the world.

Despite its delicate appearance, it weighs 10,100 metric tons and engineer Gustave Eiffel's construction was so sound that the tower never sways more than 3.5 inches in strong winds!

You may be surprised to know that Gustave Eiffel only had a permit for his tower to stand for 20 years. In fact it was going to be dismantled in 1909 when its ownership reverted back to the City of Paris. The City had planned to tear it down because part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it could be easily demolished.

Luckily, the tower proved valuable for communication purposes, and so it was allowed to remain after the expiry of the permit. In the opening weeks of the First World War, powerful radio transmitters were fitted to the tower in order to jam German communications. This seriously hindered their advance on Paris, and contributed to the Allied victory at the First Battle of the Marne.

Eiffel Tower facts

1. The puddled iron structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tonnes, while the entire structure, including non-metal components, is approximately 10,000 tonnes.

As a demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7,300 tonnes of the metal structure were melted down it would fill the 125-metre-square base to a depth of only 6 cm, assuming the density of the metal to be 7.8 tonnes per cubic metre.

2. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm  because of thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun.

3. At the time the tower was built many people were shocked by its daring shape. Eiffel was criticised for the design and accused of trying to create something artistic, or inartistic according to the viewer, without regard to engineering.  As experienced bridge builders, Eiffel and his engineers understood the importance of wind forces and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world they had to be certain it would withstand the wind.

Gustave Eiffel
In an interview reported in the newspaper Le Temps, Eiffel said:
"Now to what phenomenon did I give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument's four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be […] will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole."
As a demonstration of the tower's effectiveness in wind resistance, it sways only 6–7 cm (2–3 in) in the wind.

4. When built, the first level contained two restaurants: an "Anglo-American Bar", and a 250 seat theatre. A 2.6 m promenade ran around the outside. On the second level, the French newspaper Le Figaro had an office and a printing press, where a special souvenir edition, Le Figaro de la Tour, was produced. There was also a pâtisserie.

On the third level were laboratories for various experiments and a small apartment reserved for Gustave Eiffel to entertain guests. This is now open to the public, complete with period decorations and lifelike models of Gustave and some guests.

5.  Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers, and mathematicians in recognition of their contributions. This engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century but restored in 1986–1987 by the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company contracted to operate business related to the Tower.

6. Maintenance of the tower includes applying 50 to 60 tonnes of paint every seven years to protect it from rust. The height of the Eiffel Tower varies by 15 cm due to temperature.

7. In order to enhance the impression of height, three separate colours of paint are used on the tower, with the darkest on the bottom and the lightest at the top. On occasion the colour of the paint is changed and the tower is currently painted a shade of bronze. On the first floor there are interactive consoles hosting a poll for the colour to use for a future session of painting.

8. The only non-structural elements in the whole design of the tower are the four decorative grill-work arches, added in Stephen Sauvestre's sketches, which served to reassure visitors that the structure was safe, and to frame views of other nearby architecture.

9. One of the great Hollywood movie clichés is that the view from a Parisian window always includes the tower. In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the height of most buildings in Paris to 7 storeys, only a very few of the taller buildings have a clear view of the tower.

10. Eiffel's drawings were so precise, giving details for more than 18,000 metal parts, that the tower was erected in just a little more than two years. An astounding 2.5 million rivets hold the parts together.

11. The Eiffel Towers has recently been declared the most valuable monument in Europe - worth 435 billion euros (£343 billion) to the French economy. This equates to six times its nearest rival, the Colosseum in Rome, valued at 91 billion euros.

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Based on an article from http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/family/eiffel-tower-landmark.htm and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower
Images care of http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/family/eiffel-tower-landmark.htm and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eiffel_tower_at_Exposition_Universelle,_Paris,_1889.jpg and http://www.urbanicablog.com/?p=1895 and http://www.spike.com/articles/ps4333/seven-historic-nerds-who-were-also-historic-players and http://flybee.com/paris/top-attractions/ and http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/9492500/Eiffel-Tower-worth-344-billion-to-French-economy-or-six-Towers-of-London.html

HOW TO GROW LAVENDER FROM SEED





Lavender is without doubt one of the most popular of all hardy shrubs, and why not? Tolerant of drought, heat, poor soils and most pests and diseases, not only does will lavender flower its heart out, it is a fantastic source of nectar for pollinating insects!

However, purchasing lavender plants can end up being expensive. But fear not! Lavenders are very easy to propagate. Both from cuttings and from seed.

Growing lavender from seed

Lavender can be sow at any time of year so long as you have the use of a propagator. Otherwise, sow lavender seed from April onwards making sure that they are kept in a warm place to maintain an optimum temperature of 15-18 degrees Celsius.

To begin with, lavender seed can be sown in trays, pots or modular trays. Choose a good quality seed compost such as John Innes 'Seed and Cutting', but you may wish to mix in some horticultural grit or perlite to improve the drainage further.


Moisten the soil until it is damp, not wet, and then place the seeds one at a time on the surface. Now give the seeds with a light sprinkling of compost, making sure that all the seeds are covered. Remember not to pack the soil down on top of the seed.

Once the seeds are sown it is essential that they are kept moist. Striking the balance right between over watering the seedlings and under watering will make all the difference to the success of your plantings. Using a spray bottle is the best way to achieve the right balance.


After sowing, either place into a propagator kept at 15-18 Celsius or seal your pots/trays  in a polythene bag and leave at also at 15-18 Celsius. Keep them in a bright position, but out of direct sun during the hottest part of the day.

It can take from between twelve and twenty-one days for germination to occur, but if nothing has happened after three weeks then place the seeds back into a refrigerator - not the freezer, for a further 3-6 weeks.

After this cold period is completed they can be placed back into their warm, light environment the recommended germination temperature. However, examine regularly whilst in the fridge and remove immediately the seeds show signs of germinating.

When the seedlings are large enough to handle, transplant them into 3 inch pots using John Innes 'No 2' compost. Use a dibber and avoid disrupting the root system as much as possible. Grow on in a cold frame and plant outside in to their final position the following spring.

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Based on an article from http://www.fennelandfern.co.uk/blog/2012/04/10/how-to-grow-lavender-from-seed/
Images care of http://tonyspencer.wordpress.com/2010/07/12/somerset-lavender/ if you are not happy for me to use it then let me know and I will remove the cope and the back link and http://inhabitat.com/seed-saving-101-storing-beans-squash-and-other-large-seeds/ and http://marksvegplot.blogspot.co.uk/2010/09/opportunist.html

WHAT IS LAVENDER OIL?




Lavender oil is an substance that has been manufactured which has long been used in ancient medicines. Produced and stored in tiny glands at the base of each floret, lavender oil is an essential oil obtained by the relatively simple process of steam distillation.

Today, lavender oil is still used in the production of perfume, and for the practice of aromatherapy. The scent alone has a calming effect which may aid in relaxation and the reduction of anxiety and stress. In fact, the name lavender come from the Latin word 'Lavare' which means 'to wash', due to its 'cleansing' aroma.

Furthermore, a couple of drops of lavender oil on your pillow can help to induce sleep if you are experiencing problems 'dropping off'.

Over the centuries, lavender oil has been used to treat a variety of common ailments, such as sunburn and sunstroke. It can also be used in massage oil mixtures, which may be effective in the relief of joint and muscle pain, or even in chest rub mixtures for the relief of asthmatic and bronchitic spasm. It is also said to treat head lice when used in a hair rinse mixture, or on a fine comb to eliminate nits.

One study suggests application of lavender essential oil instead of povidone-iodine for episiotomy wound care.

The benefits of lavender oil 

Nervous System: Lavender essential oil has a calming scent which makes it an excellent tonic for the nerves. Therefore, it helps in treating migraines, headaches, anxiety, depression, nervous tension and emotional stress. The refreshing aroma removes nervous exhaustion and restlessness and increases mental activity.

Sleep: Lavender essential oil induces sleep and hence it is often recommended for insomnia.

Pain Relief: Lavender essential oil is also an excellent remedy for various types of pains including those caused by sore muscles, tense muscles, muscular aches, rheumatism, sprains, backache and lumbago. A regular massage with lavender oil provides relief from pain in the joints.

Urine Flow: Lavender essential oil is good for urinary disorders as it stimulates urine production. It helps in restoring hormonal balance and reduces cystitis or inflammation of the urinary bladder. It also reduces any associated cramps.

Respiratory Disorders: Lavender oil is extensively used for various respiratory problems including throat infections, flu, cough, cold, asthma, sinus congestion, bronchitis, whooping cough, laryngitis, and tonsillitis. The oil is either used in the form of vapour or applied on the skin of neck, chest and back. It is also added in many vaporizers and inhalers used for cold and coughs.

Blood Circulation: Lavender essential oil is also good for improving blood circulation in the body. It also lowers blood pressure and is used for hypertension.

Digestion: Lavender oil is useful for digestion as it increases the mobility of the intestine. The oil also stimulates the production of gastric juices and bile and thus aids in treating indigestion, stomach pain, colic, flatulence, vomiting and diarrhoea.

Immunity: Regular use of lavender essential oil provides resistance to diseases.

Skin Care: The health benefits of lavender oil for the skin can be attributed to its antiseptic and anti-fungal properties. It is used to treat various skin disorders such as acne, wrinkles, psoriasis, and other inflammations. It heals wounds, cuts, burns, and sunburns rapidly as it aids in the formation of scar tissues. Lavender oil is added to chamomile to treat eczema.

Hair Care: Lavender essential oil is useful for the hair care as it can be very effective on lice and lice eggs or nits.

Other health benefits of lavender essential oil include its ability to treat leucorrhoea. It is also effective against insect bites. The oil is also used to repel mosquitoes and moths. You will find many mosquito repellents containing lavender oil as one of the ingredients.

As with many other essential oils, pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid using lavender essential oil. It is also recommended that diabetics stay away from lavender oil. It may also cause allergic reactions to people having sensitive skin. Some people may also experience nausea, vomiting and headaches due to usage of lavender oil. 

Also, be aware though that according to a 2005 study "although it was recently reported that lavender oil, and its major constituent linalyl acetate, are toxic to human skin cells in vitro. Contact dermatitis to lavender oil appears to occur at only a very low frequency.

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How to Care for Poinsettias
How to Compost
How to Grow Agapanthus
How to Grow Agapanthus from Seed
How to Grow Foxgloves from Seed - By Terence Baker
How to Grow Banana Trees from Seed
How to Grow Echium from Seed
How to Grow Hibiscus
How to Grow lavendar?
How to Grow Lavender
How to Grow Lavender
How to Grow Lavender from Seed
How to Grow Old English Lavender
How to Grow Orchids
How to Grow Pansies from Seed
How to Grow Petunias from Seed
How to Grow Plants
How to Grow Raspberries
How to Grow Roses from Cuttings
How to Grow the Sago Palm from Seed
How to Grow Tree Ferns
How to Grow the Venus Fly Trap from Seed
How to Plant Bamboo
How to Propagate Bamboo?
How to Propagate lavender from Cuttings?
How to Prune an Apple Tree
How to Prune Raspberries
How to Prune Roses
How to Take Cuttings from Bamboo
How to Take Cuttings from Box Hedging
How to Take Cuttings from Clematis
How to take Cuttings from Fuchsia
How to Take Cuttings from Grape Vines
How to Take Cuttings from Lavender
How to Take Geranium Cuttings
How to Take Honeysuckle Cuttings
How to take Cuttings from Rosemary
How to take Cuttings from Roses
How to Take Hydrangea Cuttings
How to Take Hardwood Cuttings
How to take Lavender Cuttings
Is a Lavender a Flower?
Lavender
Lavender Hedging Plants
Monkey Tree
Plants
Rosemary
Schlumbergera Species - The Christmas Cacti
Strelitzia
Tetrapanax papyrifera 'Rex'
The Dragon Blood Tree 
The Dragon Lily
The Hardy Begonia - Begonia grandis
The Monkey Puzzle Tree - Araucaria araucana
The Snowdrop
The Tree Fern
The Wollemi Pine
Walnut Trees
What is Air Layering?
What is Bamboo?
What is Composting?
What is an F1 Hybrid?
What is Lavender?
What is Lobelia?
What is Seed Dormancy?
What is a Terror Bird?
Walnuts
What is Horticulture?
What is lavender Oil?
What is Perlite?
What is True Love?
What is a Walnut?
What is a Yucca?
When and how should you prune back Lavender?
When to Plant Lavender?
Why has my Lavender Died?
Why has my Lavender turned Woody?and http://www.ehow.com/about_5089560_organic-lavender-oil.html

HOW TO GROW BOUGAINVILLEA






Any country that has anything warmer that even a mild Mediterranean climate will be able to grow the fantastic Bougainvillea. And even in colder regions they can be successfully grown as a house plant.

What appear to be brilliantly coloured flowers are in fact papery bracts. The true flowers are almost insignificant, generally white, and in a cluster of three, but this doesn't matter as the bracts are so bright and persistent that they out-last and out-perform most other flowering plants - let alone other climbers!

What is a Bougainvillea?

Bougainvillea are a genus of flowering plants native to South America from Brazil west to Perú and south to southern Argentina (Chubut Province).

They are thorny, woody vines that will growing anywhere from 3 ft to 40 ft tall, and use their thorns to scrambling over other plants in order to reach the strongest sunlight. The thorns are sometimes strangely tipped with a black, waxy substance.

They are evergreen where rainfall occurs all year, or deciduous if there is a dry season. The Bougainvillea also makes an excellent hot season plant, and its drought tolerance makes it ideal for warm climates year-round. Its high salt tolerance makes it a natural choice for colour in coastal regions

Bougainvillea are relatively pest-free plants, but may suffer from worms, snails and aphids. The larvae of some Lepidoptera species also use them as food plants.

How to grow Bougainvillea

Bougainvilleas grow best in dry soil, in very bright full sun, and with frequent fertilization.  Before planting, dig in plenty of organic matter.

When choosing an area to plant your bougainvillea, remember that higher ground is best as water will drain away from the roots.

They require little water once established, and in fact will not do well at all if over-watered.

Watering

Be aware that the amount of watering needed to keep bougainvillea in tip-top condition is going to be directly related to the climate, soil type, plant size and weather conditions.  Bougainvillea are drought-tolerant plants, and require very little water once established.

As a rule of thumb, bring the soil to visual dryness between watering.

You might be surprised to know that wilting is the best indicator that watering is needed, but don't leave you bougainvillea in that condition for too long.

If you let your bougainvillea get bone-dry it will cause bracts and foliage to drop.

When it is time to water, do so thoroughly – making sure that every inch of the root system gets watered.

For more information click onto:
How to Grow Amaryllis from Seed
How to Grow Banana Trees from Seed
How to Grow the Calla Lily
How to Grow Citrus from Seed
How to Grow Colocasia
How to Grow Daffodils
Growing Geraniums from Seed
How to Grow the Baobab from Seed
How to Grow Bougainvillea?
How to Grow Camellias
How to Grow Campsis radicans
How to Grow Chillies
How to Grow Citrus Trees
How to Grow Dahlias
How to Grow Dahlias
How to Grow Dahlias from Seed
How to Grow Datura - The Angels Trumpet
How to Grow Eucomis
How to Grow Hibiscus
How to Grow Lavender
How to Grow Lobelia from Seed?
How to Grow Eucomis Plants from Seed
How to Grow the Glory Lily from Seed
How to Grow Hardy Passion Flowers from Seed
How to grow Heliconia rostrata
How to Grow Himalayan Blue Poppy - Meconopsis betonicifolia from Seed
How to Grow Hollyhocks
How to Grow Hollyhocks from Seed
How to Grow Impatiens from Seed?
How to Grow a Lemon Tree from Seed
How to Grow Lobelia cardinalis 'Queen Victoria' from Seed
How to Grow Lychnis Coronaria from Seed
How to Grow Crocus from Seed
How to Grow Hellebores from Seed
How to Grow Native Wild Primroses and Polyanthus from Seed
How to Grow an Orange Tree from Seed
How to Grow Protea
How to Grow Raspberries
How to Grow Remusatia
How to Grow Rosemary
How to Grow Rosemary form Seed?
How to Grow Rudbekia
How to Grow Schitzostylis
How to Grow the Sea Daffodil
How to Grow the Snake's Head Fritillary
How to Grow Species Tulips from Seed
How to Grow Sweet Peas from Seed
How to Grow Thunbergia mysorensis - The Indian Clock vine
How to Grow Trilliums
How to Grow Tulips?
How to take Cuttings from Roses
How to Over-Winter Lily Bulbs
How to Over-Winter the Glory Lily
How to Plant and Grow the Glory Lily
How to propagate and Grow Eucomis from Leaf Cuttings
How to Propagate and Grow Mistletoe
How to Propagate Box Hedging
How to Propagate Cowslips and Primroses
How to propagate Daffodils and Narcissus
How to Propagate Dahlias
How to Propagate and Grow Mistletoe
How to Propagate Hellebores
How to Propagate Hyacinths
How to Propagate Snowdrops
How to Propagate the Saffron Crocus
How to Propagate Tulips
How to Take Cuttings from Bougainvillea
Hyacinths
Iris reticulata
Lobelia cardinalis 'Queen Victoria'
What is an F1 Hybrid?
Kesar
The Glory Lily - Gloriosa rothschiliana
The Japanese Anemone
The Lizard Vine
The Marlborough Rock Daisy - Pachystegia insignis
The Monkey Vine - Entada gigas
The Pelican Flower - Aristolochia grandiflora
The Plant Hunters
The Red Jade vine - Mucuna benetii
The Sea Daffodil - Pancratium maritimum
The Snowdrop 'Grumpy'
The Windflower - Anemone blanda
The Witch-Hazel - Hamamelis species
The World's Most Expensive Tulip - Ever!
THE WORLD'S UGLIEST FLOWER - Aristolochia cymbifera 'Domingos Martins'
What are Clogs?
What is an Agave?
What is a Banana?
What is a Baobab tree?
What is Composting?
What is the World's Hardiest Passionflower?
What is a Yucca?
Why has my Lavender turned Woody?
Based on an article from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bougainvillea and http://www.bgi-usa.com/kb/bougainvillea-care/
Images care of http://chooseallkindsofflowers.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/bougainvillea-flower.html and http://gnfeehan.blogspot.co.uk/2011/07/camping-mexico.html and http://onehouseonecouple.blogzam.com/2012/08/finished-the-patio/ and http://heli4all.onsugar.com/tag/Global-Warming